CPF (NPS )Mathi Paisa Upadva Babat Paripatra – GPF vs CPF Vishe Samaj
Money market funds are a type of mutual fund that has relatively low risks compared to other mutual funds and ETFs (and most other investments). By law, they can invest in only certain high-quality, short-term investments issued by the and state and local governments. Government and retail money market funds try to keep their NAV at a stable per share, but the NAV may fall below if the fund’s investments perform poorly. Investor losses have been rare, but they are possible.
A Government Money Market Fund is a money market fund that invests 99.5% or more of its total assets in cash, government securities and/or repurchase agreements that are collateralized solely by government securities or cash. Other money market funds, however, have a floating NAV like other mutual funds that fluctuates along with changes in the market-based value of their portfolio securities. All money market funds pay dividends that generally reflect short-term interest rates, and historically the returns for money market funds have been lower than for either bond or stock funds.
A risk commonly associated with money market funds is Inflation Risk, which is the risk that inflation will outpace and erode investment returns over time. Index-based mutual funds and ETFs seek to track an underlying securities index and achieve returns that closely correspond to the returns of that index with low fees. They generally invest primarily in the component securities of the index and typically have lower management fees than actively managed funds. Some index funds may also use derivatives (such as options or futures) to help achieve their investment objective.
Index-based funds with seemingly similar benchmarks can actually be quite different and can deliver very different returns. For example, some index funds invest in all of the companies included in an index; other index funds invest in a representative sample of the companies included in an index. Because an index fund tracks the securities on a particular index, it may have less flexibility than a non-index fund to react to price declines in the securities contained in the index. Also because market indexes themselves have no expenses, even a passively managed index fund can underperform its index due to fees and taxes. Actively Managed Funds
The adviser of an actively managed mutual fund or ETF may buy or sell components in the portfolio on a daily basis without regard to conformity with an index, provided that the trades are consistent with the overall investment objective of the fund. Unlike similar mutual funds, actively managed ETFs are required to publish their holdings daily. Because there is no underlying index that can serve as a point of reference for investors and other market participants as to the ETF’s holdings, disclosing the specific fund holdings ensures that market participants have sufficient information to engage in activity, called arbitrage, that works to keep the market price of ETF shares closely linked to
the ETF’s underlying value. Leveraged, inverse and inverse leveraged ETFs Leveraged, inverse, and inverse leveraged ETFs seek to achieve a daily return that is a multiple or inverse multiple of the daily return of a securities index. These ETFs are a subset of index based ETFs because they track a securities index. They seek to achieve their stated objectives on a daily basis. Investors should be aware that the performance of these ETFs over a period longer than one day will probably differ significantly from their stated daily performance objectives.
These ETFs often employ techniques such as engaging in short sales and using swaps, futures contracts and other derivatives that can expose the ETF, and by extension the ETF investors, to a host of risks. As such, these are specialized products that typically are not suitable for buy-and-hold investorDividend Payments—Depending on the underlying securities, a mutual fund or ETF may earn income in the form of dividends on the securities in its portfolio. The mutual fund or ETF then pays its shareholders nearly all of the income (minus disclosed expenses) it has earned. Capital Gains Distributions—The price of the securities a mutual fund or ETF owns may increase.
When a mutual fund or ETF sells a security that has increased in price, the mutual fund or ETF has a capital gain. At the end of the year, most mutual funds and ETFs distribute these capital gains (minus any capital losses) to shareholders. ETFs seek to minimize these capital gains by making in-kind exchanges to redeeming Authorized Participants instead of selling portfolio securities. Increased NAV/Increased Market Price—If the market value of a mutual fund’s portfolio increases, after deduction of expenses and liabilities, then the net asset value of the mutual fund and its shares increases.
If the market value of an ETF’s portfolio increases, after deduction of expenses and liabilities, then the net asset value of the ETF increases, and the market price of its shares may also increase.With respect to dividend payments and capital gains distributions, mutual funds usually will give investors a choice: the mutual fund can send the investor a check or other form of payment, or the investor can have the dividends or distributions reinvested in the mutual fund to buy more shares often without paying an additional sales load). If an ETF investor wants to reinvest a dividend payment or capital gains distribution, the process can be more complicated and the investor may have to pay additional brokerage commissions. Investors should check with their ETF or investment professional distributions reinvested in
the mutual fund to buy more shares often without paying an additional sales load). If an ETF investor wants to reinvest a dividend payment or capital gains distribution, the process can be more complicated and the investor may have to pay additional brokerage commissions. Investors should check with their ETF or investment professional.fees charged directly to mutual fund investors in connection with transactions such as buying, selling, or exchanging shares, or on a periodic basis with respect to account fees.
An investor can find these fees and charges listed in the “Fee Table” section of a mutual fund’s prospectus or summary prospectus under the heading, “Shareholder Fees.” ETFs don’t charge these fees directly to investors, but they may have several types of transaction fees and costs, which are described below. Operating expenses are ongoing mutual fund and ETF costs such as investment advisory fees for managing the fund’s holdings, marketing and distribution expenses, as well as custodial, transfer agency, legal, and accountant’s fees. Operating expenses are regular and recurring fund-wide expenses that are typically paid out of fund assets, which means that investors indirectly pay these costs.
These expenses are identified in the “Fee Table” section of a mutual fund’s or ETF’s prospectus or summary prospectus under the heading, “Annual Fund Operating Expenses.” Although these fees and expenses may not be listed individually as specific line items on an account statement, they can have a substantial impact on an investment over time. Fees and expenses vary from fund to fund.
If the funds are otherwise the same, a fund with lower fees will outperform a fund with higher fees. Remember, the more investors pay in fees and expenses, the less money they will have in their investment portfolio. As noted above, index funds typically have lower fees than actively managed funds. a fee some mutual funds charge investors when they buy shares, also known as a front-end load.
This fee is typically paid to the broker that sells the mutual fund’s shares. In this respect, a sales load is like a commission investors pay when they purchase any type of security (like a stock or an ETF) from a broker. Front-end loads reduce the amount of an investment. For example, let’s say an investor has and wants to invest it in a mutual fund with a 5% front-end load.